Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, T Michael O’Shea, H Gerry Taylor, Karl K C Kuban
J Child Neurol. 2018 Mar;33(3):198-208.
The authors assessed 716 children who were 10 years old born extremely preterm whose IQ was ≥ 70. A working memory dysfunction (n = 169), an inhibition dysfunction (n = 360), a switching dysfunction (355), and all 3 (executive dysfunction; n = 107) were defined on the basis of Z-scores ≤ -1 on the DAS-II, and/or NEPSY-II. All risk profiles include socioeconomic disadvantage, newborn’s immaturity, and risk profiles of inhibition dysfunction and switching dysfunction also include an indicator of inflammation. Only the switching dysfunction was associated with fetal growth restriction. The risk factors for executive dysfunction can be subsumed under 4 themes of SE disadvantage, immaturity/vulnerability, inflammation, and fetal growth restriction.