Jessica M Faupel-Badger, Raina N Fichorova, Elizabeth N Allred, Jonathan L Hecht, Olaf Dammann, Alan Leviton, Thomas F McElrath
Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;66:488-94
Placentas from PE had high levels of VEGF combined with low levels of acute inflammatory proteins (IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α), low IL-1 RA, and high transforming growth factor β (TGF-β). PL and pPROM had higher anti-inflammatory IL-1 RA and thrombomodulin combined with lower. Half of the PL and pPROM cases of heightened inflammatory responses (lower TGF-β & higher intensity of inflammatory mediators).