The risk of neurodevelopmental disorders at age 10 years associated with blood concentrations of interleukins 4 and 10 during the first postnatal month of children born extremely preterm

Alan Leviton, Robert M Joseph, Elizabeth N Allred, Raina N Fichorova, T Michael O’Shea, Karl K C Kuban, Olaf Dammann

Cytokine. 2018 Oct;110:181-188.

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The risks of low scores on the Animal Sorting and Arrows components of the NEPSY-II, both components of the OWLS-II, and the PseudoWord and Spelling components of the WIAT-III were heightened among children who had top quartile concentrations of IL-4 on postnatal days 21 and 28. Children who had high concentrations of IL-10 on days 21 and 28, individually and collectively, were at increased risk of low scores on the WIAT-III Spelling component. High concentrations of IL-4 on day 28 were associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). High concentrations of IL-10 on day 28 were also associated with a doubling of ASD risk, but this did not achieve statistical significance. Top quartile concentrations of IL-4 and IL10 on both days were not associated with increased risk of social, language, or behavioral dysfunctions.